Reflections aim to provide insights on key climate change issues. They concisely analyze current challenges related to climate and energy policies and show research results useful for stimulating further discussion. If you wish to receive “Reflections”, please send an email to

Climate Finance: from Paris to Marrakech

Author: Isabella Alloisio

The Paris Agreement recognized the need to mobilize international climate finance by making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development, and asked developed economies to contribute financially to enabling developing countries to comply…

Rising uncertainties about the Climate Regime

Author: Jaime de Melo, FERDI

The Paris Agreement, which entered into force only on November 4, is already in jeopardy, amidst rumours that the US might pull out, which could lead to a reduction in efforts by China and others. The Paris Agreement is really…

Energy-efficient buildings for low-carbon cities

Author: Viola Polesello & Katie Johnson

Buildings represent a key area for climate change mitigation. They account for approximately 30% of global energy consumption, and in turn generate around 20% of all energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Current trends in population growth and urbanization will lead…

Assessing the INDCs: a comparison of different approaches

Author: Marinella Davide and Paola Vesco

The “Intended nationally determined contributions” (INDCs) communicated by both developing and developed countries represent a crucial element of the Paris agreement. This brief aims at analysing the INDCs submitted by Parties, through the different tools and approaches proposed by the…